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Operators In C
An operator in c language is a symbol that instructs the compiler to perform specific mathematical or logical functions. C language is very rich in builtin operators.
Following are types of the operator in c:
 Unary Operators
 Arithmetic Operators
 Relational Operators
 Logical Operators
 Bitwise Operators
 Assignment Operators
 Miscellaneous Operators
Unary operator in c
Unary operators are those which have a single operand to perform its task. For example, Assume int a=4;
Operator  Description  Example 

Unary +  Shows the direction of data  +3 
Unary –  Shows the direction of data  10 
Increment ++  Increases the value of the variable by one  a++ = 5 
Decrement —  Increases the value of the variable by one  a — = 3 
sizeof()  Returns size of a variable  sizeof(a)= 4 
Arithmetic operator in C
Arithmetic operators are the same as they are in mathematics. + is used to add two numbers, – is used to subtract two numbers and * is used to multiply two numbers and so on.
For example, int A= 5, B=10;
Operator  Description  Example 

+  Adds two operands.  A+B =15 
−  Subtracts the second operand from the first.  AB = 5 
*  Multiplies both operands.  A*B = 50 
/  Divides numerator by denumerator.  B/A = 2 
%  Modulus Operator and remainder of after an integer division.  B%A = 0 
Relational operator in C
Relational operators are always evaluated as true or false. True is 1 and false is 0.
For example, A holds 10 and variable B holds 20
Operator  Description  Example 

==  Checks if the values of two operands are equal or not. If yes, then the condition becomes true.  (A == B) is not true. 
!=  Checks if the values of two operands are equal or not. If the values are not equal, then the condition becomes true.  (A != B) is true. 
>  Checks if the value of left operand is greater than the value of the right operand. If yes, then the condition becomes true.  (A > B) is not true. 
<  Checks if the value of left operand is less than the value of the right operand. If yes, then the condition becomes true.  (A < B) is true. 
>=  Checks if the value of left operand is greater than or equal to the value of the right operand. If yes, then the condition becomes true.  (A >= B) is not true. 
<=  Checks if the value of left operand is less than or equal to the value of the right operand. If yes, then the condition becomes true.  (A <= B) is true. 
Logical operator in c
Logical operators are those which performs logical operations on operands. For example, assume variable A holds 1 and variable B holds 0.
Operator  Description  Example 

&&  Called Logical AND operator. If both the operands are nonzero, then the condition becomes true.  (A && B) is false. 
  Called Logical OR Operator. If any of the two operands is nonzero, then the condition becomes true.  (A  B) is true. 
!  Called Logical NOT Operator. It is used to reverse the logical state of its operand. If a condition is true, then Logical NOT operator will make it false.  !(A && B) is true. 
Bitwise Operator In C
Bitwise operators work on binary numbers that are bits. You should know how to convert a number from decimal to binary and from binary to decimal.
For example, assume A=60 and B= 13
Operator  Description  Example 

&  Binary AND Operator copies a bit to the result if it exists in both operands.  (A & B) = 12, i.e., 0000 1100 
  Binary OR Operator copies a bit if it exists in either operand.  (A  B) = 61, i.e., 0011 1101 
^  Binary XOR Operator copies the bit if it is set in one operand but not both.  (A ^ B) = 49, i.e., 0011 0001 
~  Binary One’s Complement Operator is unary and has the effect of ‘flipping’ bits.  (~A ) = ~(60), i.e,. 0111101 
<<  Binary Left Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved left by the number of bits specified by the right operand.  A << 2 = 240 i.e., 1111 0000 
>>  Binary Right Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved right by the number of bits specified by the right operand.  A >> 2 = 15 i.e., 0000 1111 
Truth Table
Bitwise AND (&)

Bitwise OR ()

Bitwise XOR (^)

Bitwise NOT (~)

Assignment operator in C
Assignment operators are used to assigning values to variables.
Operator  Description  Example 

=  Simple assignment operator. Assigns values from right side operands to left side operand  C = A + B will assign the value of A + B to C 
+=  Add AND assignment operator. It adds the right operand to the left operand and assigns the result to the left operand.  C += A is equivalent to C = C + A 
=  Subtract AND assignment operator. It subtracts the right operand from the left operand and assigns the result to the left operand.  C = A is equivalent to C = C – A 
*=  Multiply AND assignment operator. It multiplies the right operand with the left operand and assigns the result to the left operand.  C *= A is equivalent to C = C * A 
/=  Divide AND assignment operator. It divides the left operand with the right operand and assigns the result to the left operand.  C /= A is equivalent to C = C / A 
%=  Modulus AND assignment operator. It takes modulus using two operands and assigns the result to the left operand.  C %= A is equivalent to C = C % A 
<<=  Left shift AND assignment operator.  C <<= 2 is same as C = C << 2 
>>=  Right shift AND assignment operator.  C >>= 2 is same as C = C >> 2 
&=  Bitwise AND assignment operator.  C &= 2 is same as C = C & 2 
^=  Bitwise exclusive OR and assignment operator.  C ^= 2 is same as C = C ^ 2 
=  Bitwise inclusive OR and assignment operator.  C = 2 is same as C = C  2 
Miscellaneous operator in C
A few examples of miscellaneous operators in C are given below and let’s assume a variable int a.
sizeof()  Returns the size of a variable.  sizeof(a), where a is an integer, will return 4. 
&  Returns the address of a variable.  &a; returns the actual address of the variable. 
*  Pointer to a variable.  *a; 
? :  Conditional Expression.  If Condition is true? then value X: otherwise value Y 
Operators Precedence in C
Operator precedence determines the grouping of terms in expression and decides how an expression is evaluated. Certain operators have higher precedence than other operators. For example, the multiplication operator has higher precedence over the addition operator.
For example, x = 4 + 2 * 2; here, x is assigned 8, not 12 because operator * has higher precedence over +, so it first gets multiplied with 2*2 and then adds into 4.
Here, operators with the highest precedence appear at the top of the table, those with the lowest appear at the bottom. Within an expression, higher precedence operators will be evaluated first.
Category  Operator  Associativity 

Postfix  () [] > . ++ – –  Left to right 
Unary  + – ! ~ ++ – – (type)* & sizeof  Right to left 
Multiplicative  * / %  Left to right 
Additive  + –  Left to right 
Shift  << >>  Left to right 
Relational  < <= > >=  Left to right 
Equality  == !=  Left to right 
Bitwise AND  &  Left to right 
Bitwise XOR  ^  Left to right 
Bitwise OR    Left to right 
Logical AND  &&  Left to right 
Logical OR    Left to right 
Conditional  ?:  Right to left 
Assignment  = += = *= /= %=>>= <<= &= ^= =  Right to left 
Comma  ,  Left to right 
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